Choose a topic or issue that is complex. Remember you must include a counter
argument so therefore you must present two sides of the issue.
Write a well organised essay in regards to your topic. State your opinion and use all the argumentative skills we have learned.
_Occasional use of very short
_Connectives & useful
_Facts and Opinions
_Use of ‘we’
to involve the reader
To remind yourself here are
some argumentative words/connectives:
FOR THIS REASON
Title: Features in Action
Below is the same passage twice. Once without argumentative writing features and once with the argumentative
writing features added in.
Good for having students see the features of argumentative writing in action. Also lets them see a
piece of writing as an examiner.
Task 2 - Examples of Argumentative Writing Features in Action
Example of Not Using
Argumentative Writing Skills – Dull!
I feel uniforms should
not be used in school today. It is 2005 and there is simply not point. I really do not want our students to have no sense of individuality. Absolutely not. I exist in a world where our education system is clearly unfair.
Teachers can wear what they choose. Uniforms aren’t practical. They don’t create a sense of community.
Example Using Argumentative
Writing Skills – Please annotate them!
We feel uniforms should
not be used in school today. It is 2005 and there is simply not point. No point at all. Do we really want our students to have no
sense of individuality? Absolutely not.
Unfortunately, we exist in a world where our education system is clearly unfair.
Teachers can wear what they choose, why not students? Some people think
uniforms are practical and create a sense of community, but they are just plain wrong.
Title: How well reasoned is it?
Below is a list of arguments that have good points and bad points.
Good for fascilitating discussion, for getting students to add in argumentative writing features, or getting
students to write responses or suggestions to the author.
Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument.
The Treasury has once again introduced a dollar coin, the Pine Tree
dollar. Neither the Presidential dollar coin, introduced 11 years ago, nor the Eagle dollar coin, introduced 3 years ago,
remained in circulation long: people simply preferred spending paper dollars. However, a survey conducted soon after its release
indicates that the Pine Tree dollar is far more appealing than other dollar coins: 76 percent of respondents own the coin;
62 percent of those owning multiple coins consider it so attractive that they are still saving rather than spending the most
recent coin to come into their possession. Since the Pine Tree coin promises to become the dollar currency of choice, the
Treasury is correct to begin saving money by dramatically reducing the costly printing of paper dollars.
When Stanley Park
first opened, it was the largest, most heavily used park in town. It is still the largest park, but it is no longer heavily
used. Video cameras mounted in the park's parking lots last month revealed the park's drop in popularity: the recordings showed
an average of only 50 cars per day. In contrast, tiny Carlton
Park in the heart of the business district is visited by more than 150
people on a typical weekday. An obvious difference is that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park, provides ample seating. Thus, if Stanley
Park is ever to be as popular with our citizens as is Carlton Park, the town will obviously need
to provide more benches, thereby converting some of the unused open areas into spaces suitable for socializing.
The following appeared in a memo from the Dean of the College of Education at Omni State University.
"Only seven of our state's high schools offer even one course in
Latin, but over 80 percent of the graduates who study Latin at those seven schools enroll in college. Furthermore, a recent
study shows that students who have mastered Latin perform much better in logic and critical thinking. Thus, in order to increase
the percentage of our high school students who graduate from college as well as to ensure that they receive a better education
in critical thinking, Omni State
University should begin an intensive program to prepare our future teachers
to teach high school Latin."
The following appeared in a memo from the president of a chain of
cheese stores located throughout the United States.
"For many years all the stores in our chain have stocked a wide variety
of both domestic and imported cheeses. Last year, however, the five best-selling cheeses at our newest store were all domestic
cheddar cheeses from Wisconsin. Furthermore, a recent survey
by Cheeses of the World magazine indicates an increasing preference for domestic cheeses among its subscribers. Since our
company can reduce expenses by limiting inventory, the best way to improve profits in all of our stores is to discontinue
stocking many of our varieties of imported cheese and concentrate primarily on domestic cheeses."
The following appeared in a letter from a firm providing investment
advice to a client.
"Homes in the northeastern United States, where winters are typically cold, have traditionally used oil as
their major fuel for heating. Last year that region experienced 90 days with below-average temperatures, and climate forecasters
at Waymarsh University
predict that this weather pattern will continue for several more years. Furthermore, many new homes have been built in this
region during the past year. Because of these developments, we predict an increased demand for heating oil and recommend investment
in Consolidated Industries, one of whose major business operations is the retail sale of home heating oil."
The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a newspaper serving
the villages of Castorville and Polluxton.
"Both the villages of Castorville and Polluxton have experienced
sharp declines in the numbers of residents who pay property taxes. To save money and improve service, the two villages recently
merged their once separate garbage collection departments into a single department located in Castorville, and the new department
has reported few complaints about its service. Last year the library in Polluxton had 20 percent fewer users than during the
previous year. It follows that we should now further economize and improve service, as we did with garbage collection, by
closing the library in Polluxton and using the library in Castorville to serve both villages."
The following appeared in a memo from a budget planner for the City
"To avoid a budget deficit next year, the City of Grandview must eliminate its funding for the Grandview Symphony. Our citizens are well aware
of the fact that while the Grandview Symphony Orchestra was struggling to succeed, our city government promised annual funding
to help support its programs. Last year, however, private contributions to the Symphony increased by 200 percent, and attendance
at the Symphony's concerts-in-the-park series doubled. The Symphony has also announced an increase in ticket prices for next
year. Such developments indicate that the Symphony can now succeed without funding from city government and we can eliminate
that expense from next year's budget. This action will surely prevent a budget deficit."
Yellow-legged frogs were once common in high-altitude lakes in the
Sierra Nevada mountains, but they have become increasingly rare. Trout feed on tadpoles and
young frogs. Few lakes in the Sierra Nevada had any trout in them until a hundred years ago.
At that time, many lakes were stocked with trout for recreational fishing, and now trout are common in virtually all bodies
of water in the Sierra Nevada. Researchers removed the trout from one lake, and the frog
population soon quadrupled. Since frogs are capable of moving several miles over land, removing trout from just a few lakes
is clearly the way to restore the frog population to its former levels.
Studies show that in 70 percent of traffic accidents, at least one
driver involved is less than 10 miles from home when the accident occurs. This statistic indicates that drivers have a tendency
to drive incautiously when they are close to home, probably because familiar surroundings give them a false sense of security.
Thus, the places where people feel safest are the places where they are in fact at greatest risk of serious injury.
Copper occurs in nature mixed with other minerals and valuable metals
in ore, and the proportion of copper in the ore can vary considerably. Until fairly recently, the only way to extract pure
copper from ore was by using a process that requires large amounts of electric energy, especially if the proportion of copper
in the ore is low. New copper-extracting technologies can use up to 40 percent less electricity than the older method to process
the same amount of raw ore, especially when the proportion of copper in the ore is high. Therefore, we can expect the amount
of electricity used by the copper-extraction industry to decline significantly.
In measuring electrical activity in different parts of the brain,
researchers found that people who describe themselves as generally happy have more activity in the left prefrontal lobe of
their brains than do other people. Therefore, a medication for stimulating the left prefrontal lobe of the brain would be
an effective treatment for clinical depression.
The following appeared in a memo from a manager of a car dealership.
"Ten years ago, long-term car leasing became available in our country
of Mohilia as an alternative to outright car ownership, and leasing has steadily risen in popularity. For each of the last
five years, the number of people leasing new cars has surpassed the number buying new cars. The average age of cars driven
in Mohilia is six years; hence, if new car leases again outnumber purchases this year, it is likely that the majority of drivers
will be driving leased, not individually owned, cars. Therefore, we should change the focus of our business from selling cars
to leasing them."
The following appeared in a newsletter about education policy.
'The average annual earnings of high school dropouts are significantly
less than the average annual earnings of high school graduates. To address this problem, the state governor has proposed that
the state should establish free vocational training programs for high school dropouts. But the availability of such programs
would probably encourage some students who would otherwise have graduated to drop out in order to pursue vocational training.
Hence the proposed programs would lower, not raise, the average earning potential of young people. Therefore, the state should
not establish the vocational training programs but should instead focus on improving academic programs in our high schools.'
The following appeared in a newsletter about health.
"The proportion of children in the United States who are overweight is greater now than ever before. Obesity rates
among children have been increasing since the 1970's and, during that same time period, the proportion of children living
in suburbs has increased. Whereas children in rural areas tend to have outdoor active chores and children in cities often
walk to school or other places they need to go, children in suburbs are typically driven everywhere. Thus the increase in
childhood obesity is probably due mainly to the suburbanization of America
and the associated decrease in the opportunities children have for exercise."
The following appeared as part of an article in a health and beauty
"A group of volunteers participated in a study of consumer responses
to the new Luxess face cream. Every morning for a month, they washed their faces with mild soap and then applied Luxess. At
the end of that month, most volunteers reported a marked improvement in the way their skin looked and felt. Thus it appears
that Luxess is truly effective in improving the condition of facial skin."
The cities of East Sacunda and West Sacunda
are in an earthquake-prone area. Since 1985 both cities have had stringent building codes requiring all new buildings to have
specific features designed to prevent damage in an earthquake. Buildings built before 1985 are exempt from the codes, but
many building owners have modified their buildings to make them conform to the 1985 codes. Last year a major earthquake hit
the area, and many people lost their homes. The number of people who were left homeless was much higher in East Sacunda than
in West Sacunda, however, so we can conclude that building owners in East Sacunda were less
likely to modify their buildings so as to bring them up to the 1985 code standards.
The following appeared in a letter to the editor of an archaeological
"Archaeologists excavated a cave that had been inhabited by prehistoric
people for thousands of years. These people hunted wild animals, many of whose bones were found at levels corresponding to
different times of habitation. Most of the bones at the oldest levels, over 40,000 years old, were from a deer species whose
modern-day descendants are known to prefer woodland habitats, whereas most of the bones at more recent levels, dating from
30,000 to 10,000 years ago, were from a gazelle species whose modern-day descendants are known to prefer grasslands. We can
thus conclude that the climate of the area changed dramatically between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago, causing the terrain to
change from woodland to grassland."
The following appeared in a magazine for the trucking industry.
"The Longhaul trucking company was concerned that its annual accident
rate (the number of accidents per mile driven) was too high. It granted a significant pay increase to its drivers and increased
its training standards. It also put strict limits on the number of hours per week each driver could drive. The following year,
its trucks were involved in half the number of accidents as before the changes were implemented. A survey of other trucking
companies found that the highest-paid drivers were the least likely to have had an accident. Therefore, trucking companies
wishing to reduce their accident rate can do so simply by raising their drivers' pay and limiting the overall number of hours
The following appeared as an editorial in a health magazine.
"Clormium 5 is an odorless, tasteless, and generally harmless industrial
by-product that can enter the water supply. A preliminary study has linked cooking with water containing clormium 5 to an
increased incidence of allergies and skin rashes. Tests of the drinking water in several areas have revealed the presence
of clormium 5. Although it is possible to remove clormium 5 from water, the costs of routine testing and purification are
higher than many communities can afford. Therefore, in order to prevent allergies and skin rashes, communities that cannot
afford to rid their drinking water of clormium 5 should replace drinking fountains in public buildings, such as schools and
libraries, with bottled-water coolers."
Allergies are an overreaction of the immune system to certain stimuli.
One view is that allergies can develop as the result of childhood exposure to certain irritants, such as dust or animal dander,
while the immune system is not yet mature. Another view is that exposure to particular bacteria early in childhood actually
triggers the proper development of the immune system, and that limiting exposure to these bacteria through excessive hygiene
can cause children's immune systems to overreact to certain irritants later on. A new study supports the second view: children
who are washed especially frequently and whose parents clean their homes especially frequently are more likely to develop
allergies than are other children. So in order to reduce the incidence of allergies in children and adults, parents should
not limit children's exposure to irritants or bacteria.
The following appeared in a letter to an editor.
"In many countries, wood is the primary fuel used for heating and
cooking, but wood smoke can cause respiratory and eye problems, and extensive use of wood causes deforestation, a major environmental
problem. In contrast, charcoal, made by partially burning wood in a controlled process, is a fuel that creates less smoke
than wood does. Moreover, although charcoal costs slightly more than wood, less charcoal is needed to produce the same amount
of heat. Therefore, people who use wood as their primary fuel can, without experiencing economic hardship, switch to charcoal
and can thereby improve their health and preserve the environment."
The following appeared in a memo from the business manager of Medicine,
Inc., a local drugstore.
"Most business analysts for the drugstore industry have stated that
even when a nation's economy is weak, drugstores' profits are unlikely to decline appreciably. While consumers might put off
some kinds of purchases when the economy is slow, prescription and over-the-counter drug purchases are dictated by consumers'
health needs, which are independent of the economy. Therefore, Medicine Inc. is likely to continue to have increasing profits
and should plan to open an additional drugstore next year."
The following appeared in a memo written by the head of the Gorham School.
"Our school cafeteria should make changes in the lunches that it
serves in order to improve the health of our students. Several teachers and I have observed that students who eat these meals
tend to eat the main course and the dessert, but seldom finish the vegetable portion. This pattern means that students are
missing the vital nutritional benefits of fruits and vegetables, which are typically rich in vitamins and minerals. Therefore,
the school cafeteria should serve larger fruit and vegetable portions along with smaller main course and dessert portions.
This change will be effective because, according to research conducted at the Rose Children's Hospital, children eat the same
amount of food served to them — about 55 percent, on average — no matter what the main course is."
The following appeared in the letter to an editor of a Myrian newspaper.
"Under Governor Winslow's leadership over the past four years, Myria
has enjoyed unprecedented prosperity. Average wage increases this year are higher than they have been at any time since the
1970's, the number of people who report being unemployed has decreased by 10 percent, and construction of new homes is up
by one third. In contrast, over the past four years Governor Winslow's opponent, Mr. Homer, has been mayor of a city in which
only a small number of new businesses have opened. If Myrians want another four years like the past four years, they should
reelect Governor Winslow."
The following appeared in a memo from a member of the Clark City
Elementary School is faced with a shortage of classroom space. At the
same time, parents in our district are increasingly expressing the desire to see improvements in their children's reading
abilities. Therefore, we should reduce the number of physical education classes at Mason Elementary and convert part of the
gymnasium to class-room space. The school will gain the additional space for classrooms without the cost of extending the
building and can use the time that students would have spent in physical education classes to provide more reading instruction.
This plan will lead to improvements in students' reading skills."
The following appeared in a memo to managers of Christine's, a chain
of craft stores.
"Several major newspapers have recently run articles noting an increased
interest in pottery. The number of potters in this country has risen by eighteen percent in the past five years, and pottery
is particularly gaining popularity on college campuses. In order to take advantage of these trends, Christine's should immediately
begin carrying a larger volume of pottery supplies. Since several of our stores have recently experienced a decrease in sales
of painting supplies, all store managers should reallocate shelf space from the painting area for the display of pottery.
Stores should display posters showing pottery that is designed to appeal to college-age individuals. These actions will undoubtedly
increase our profits dramatically."
The following appeared in a newsletter about health published in
the country of Sauria.
"According to Sauria's leading nutritional experts, a diet high in
complex carbohydrates, and low in fat is optimal for good health and longevity. Because this was the diet of the people who
lived in ancient Sauria, one would expect them to have had long and healthy lives. Yet the mummified remains of Sauria's ruling
classes from two to three thousand years ago show the existence of many medical problems among the ancient Saurians, including
dental problems, elevated blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, and early mortality. Clearly, the diet of the ancient Saurians
was responsible for these problems. The high incidence of high blood pressure, obesity, and heart disease in Sauria today
even among those who have tried low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets further proves that Sauria's leading nutritional experts
The following appeared in a newspaper published in the state of Celera.
"Speed limits on our state's highways should be eliminated in order
to increase our state's prosperity. Because greater speed means more efficient travel, commercial deliveries will be faster,
increasing business profits. Elimination of speed limits will also make driving more attractive to motorists, so that more
people will use the highways, providing more highway toll revenues for the state. At the same time, safety on our highways
will not be affected: daytime speed limits were eliminated last year in the western states of our country, and no significant
increase in the number of accidents in these states has been reported."
The following appeared in an editorial on health problems in the
country of Corpora.
"Some pharmacies now feature ultrasound machines that screen for
an elevated risk of stroke. For a fee, a technician presses a probe against the neck to determine whether any plaque has thickened
the walls of the main artery leading to the brain. Researchers have shown that a thickening of artery walls is associated
with elevated stroke risk, and such scans typically find that anywhere from 5 to 20 percent of clients have detectable plaque.
All pharmacies should offer this service, because early detection of increased risk for stroke will encourage clients to consult
with their doctors and make important life-style changes to reduce their risk of having a stroke. This in turn will cause
a decrease in overall medical costs in Corpora."
The following appeared in an article in Supplements Today.
"Dieticians have long known that professional athletes who eat a
lot of nuts have higher levels of endurance than those who do not. Researchers have recently discovered that the particular
combination of vitamin N and fiber found in some nuts provides a boost for those who participate in strenuous physical activities
daily. Both vitamin N and fiber supplements are easily synthesized and widely available. As a result, all those who participate
in athletic activities will be able to increase their endurance and win more games by taking vitamin N along with a fiber
The following is a recommendation from the human resources department
at Techforce Computer Company.
"Many working parents report that problems related to their childcare
arrangements are a major reason for absenteeism from their jobs. Bridgewell Corporation, a tele-communications company, implemented
an on-site childcare program and after one year, the company reported that unscheduled absences had declined by 25 percent.
Since Techforce has had an increase in unscheduled employee absences over the past year, we should therefore implement our
own on-site childcare program. The program will undoubtedly reduce our unscheduled employee absences, resulting in significantly
The following appeared in a memo from a vice president of a large,
highly diversified company.
"Ten years ago our company had two new regional office buildings
built in two different regions. The buildings were erected by two different construction companies — Alpha and Zeta.
Even though the two buildings had virtually identical floor plans, the building constructed by Zeta cost 30 percent more to
build, and its expenses for maintenance last year were twice those of the building constructed by Alpha. Furthermore, the
energy consumption of the Zeta building has been higher than that of the Alpha building every year since its construction.
Such data, plus the fact that Alpha has a stable workforce with little employee turnover, indicate that we should use Alpha
Construction Company, rather than Zeta, for all future building projects."
The following appeared in a memo from the president of Bower Builders,
a company that constructs new homes.
"A nationwide survey reveals that the two most desired home features
are a bathroom with a whirlpool tub and a large kitchen. Homes in a nearby development built by our competitor, Domus Construction,
have whirlpool tubs and have sold much faster and at significantly higher prices than the average. To increase our sales and
profits, we should include whirlpool tubs and larger kitchens as standard features in all our new homes. Since our recent
buyers have voiced no complaints about small yards, we can also increase profits by decreasing the size of our yards."
The following appeared in a memo from a budget planner in Sophia County.
"Census data indicate that the number of retired couples without
children who are moving into Sophia County
is steadily rising; private schools in our county report substantial increases in enrollment; and a statewide survey of parents
shows that over 10 percent now support the idea of home schooling instead of public schooling funded by the county government.
Such demographic trends suggest that our county will not have to construct new school buildings and that we can therefore
decrease the budget for county-funded public schools."
The following appeared in a magazine focusing on health and fitness.
"A recent study of several nutritional supplements showed that subjects
who took a daily pill containing luceen had significantly better vision of distant objects than subjects in the study who
took other nutritional supplements. Luceen appears naturally in a tasty fruit that grows on the island of Bonopia, and very few inhabitants
of that island wear eyeglasses or other corrective lenses. Such evidence suggests that people who develop vision problems
should take regular luceen supplements."
The following appeared in a memo from the manager of television station
"A nationwide survey reveals that a sizeable majority of men would
like to see additional sports programs on television. After television station WACK increased its sports broadcasts, its share
of the television audience in its viewing area almost doubled. To gain a larger audience share in our area, and thus increase
company profits, KICK should also revise its broadcast schedule to include more sports coverage."
The following appeared in a memo from the director of a large group
"In a laboratory study of liquid antibacterial hand soaps, a concentrated
solution of Nadasept killed 40 percent more bacteria than the liquid hand soaps currently used in our hospitals. During a
subsequent test of Nadasept at our hospital in Saluda, that hospital reported significantly
fewer cases of patient infection than did any of the other hospitals in our group. Therefore, to prevent serious patient infections,
we should supply Nadasept at all hand washing stations throughout our hospital system."
The following appeared in a memo from the economic minister of the
small country Paucia.
"Using a newly developed variety of seed, farmers in our neighboring
country Abundia produced 80 percent more rice last year than in any previous year. To increase the income of farmers in our
own country, we should encourage them to cultivate this new variety of rice rather than some of their traditional crops. Such
high yields of rice will also improve our country's balance of trade by enabling us to begin exporting it."
The following appeared in a memo from the chief operating officer
of the Presto Manufacturing Company.
"Since orders for our major product increased by over 200 percent
last quarter, we should promptly expand production by building a new manufacturing plant in Summit City. Summit City is the ideal location for the new
plant because it has low property taxes, extensive blocks of land available for immediate purchase, and a large number of
residents who are not currently employed."
The following appeared in a memo from the president of a company
that makes breakfast cereals.
"In a recent study, subjects who ate soybeans at least five times
per week had significantly lower cholesterol levels than subjects who ate no soy products. By fortifying our Wheat-O cereal
with soy protein, we can increase sales by appealing to additional consumers who are concerned about their health. This new
version of Wheat-O should increase company profits and, at the same time, improve the health of our customers."
The following appeared in a letter from the mayor of Tudor City.
"After a major airline chose Yorkville as its regional flight hub,
the number of businesses in that city almost doubled and local tax revenue increased by 50 percent. In addition, as travel
to Yorkville became easier, most respondents to a survey of the country's top executives identified Yorkville as a desirable
place to transact business. To secure efficient transportation for Tudor
City and stimulate our local economy, we should build a new airport,
like the one in Yorkville, that is suitable for a regional flight hub."
Blue City Highway had always been notorious for its
tight curves and poor roadway visibility, and the accident rate there was generally very high. Last year the highway was redesigned
to broaden the curves and improve roadway visibility. Drivers report that they now feel much safer driving on the highway
and that the redesign has been a big improvement. But the number of accidents on the highway has not been significantly lower
in the six months since the redesign than it was in the six months before the redesign. Therefore, the redesign clearly did
not improve the curves and roadway visibility enough to make a difference.
One kind of brain-scanning device is used by doctors to monitor normal
as well as abnormal activity in a patient's brain. The device provides precise measurements of blood flow in the brain, a
known indicator of how the brain is working. Unfortunately, the device requires patients to remain completely still with their
heads in the scanning machine, which makes a very loud noise. Under these uncomfortable conditions, it is doubtful that doctors
can get accurate measurements. A new head-mounted device that measures eye movements rather than blood flow and allows patients
to move around will undoubtedly provide better brain measurements. Thus, the new head-mounted device should replace the older
device at all hospitals and research institutions.
The following appeared in a health newsletter.
"According to a recent study, people with many social ties report
catching colds less often than do people with few social ties. Consequently, researchers conclude that having an active social
life probably helps strengthen the immune system. The researchers note that catching a cold — one of a family of highly
contagious viruses — gives the cold-sufferer temporary immunity to that virus in the future, but not to the many other
related viruses. Merely being exposed to a new cold virus, however, is not enough for a person to catch a cold, since a strong
immune system can successfully fight off some new viruses. Thus, in order to prevent catching a cold, people should strengthen
their immune systems by becoming more active socially."
The following editorial appeared in a newspaper in the country of
Valley region was primarily agricultural twenty years ago. In the past
twenty years, however, many computer-chip manufacturers have opened factories there. A recent study found that water pollution
in the region was worse than in any other region in the country. Moreover, the computer-chip factories, which use large quantities
of water to manufacture the chips, are probably responsible for the low levels of water in the region's lakes and reservoirs.
Therefore, if the region's computer-chip makers had limits placed on the amount of water they could use, water quality would
The following appeared in an editorial in the Seatown newspaper.
"Seatown has a large port exclusively for fishing boats, whose owners
pay fees for the upkeep of the docks and for facilities for cleaning engines and repairing nets. In recent years, declining
fish populations have decreased fishing revenue and forced many owners to stop fishing altogether. As a result, the port has
a high vacancy rate and port managers are considering allowing pleasure boats, including cruise ships and other large vessels,
to use the port in order to increase revenue. But allowing pleasure boats into the port would be a mistake, because the fishing
boats would be forced out of the port. We should preserve the port for the fishing fleet, which, unlike pleasure boats, contributes
to the prosperity of Seatown."
The following appeared in a Brenton newspaper.
"The Brenton power plant draws water from Scott's River for its cooling
system and releases the warmed water back into the river. The town council recommends that the plant install a more efficient
cooling system that uses less water, claiming it will be more environmentally sound. However, in Uptown, where the new system
is used, a study found that the complex network of pipes in the new system tends to accumulate algae. The build up of algae
can be avoided by scrubbing the pipes, which is costly, or by adding an herbicide to the water in the pipes to prevent algae
accumulation. But water containing the herbicide cannot be released back into the river and it is known that low water levels
can harm river ecosystems accustomed to higher levels. Therefore, Brenton power plant should continue to use the old cooling
The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Maple City newspaper.
"Twenty years ago Pine
City established strict laws designed to limit the number of new buildings
that could be constructed in the city. Since that time the average housing prices in Pine
City have increased considerably. Chestnut
City, which is about the same size as Pine
City, has over the past twenty years experienced an increase in average housing prices
similar to Pine City, but Chestnut City never established any laws that
limit new building construction. So it is clear that laws limiting new construction have no effect on average housing prices.
So if Maple City
were to establish strict laws that limit new building construction, these laws will have no effect on average housing prices."
The following appeared in a memo from the Principal of Sherwood Junior
"It appears that the lighting in Sherwood High's classrooms, which
have large windows but minimal overhead light sources, is impairing student academic performance and teacher morale. Records
show that during December and January, the two months with the fewest hours of daylight, attendance rates fall, average daily
class participation drops, and grades decline. Teacher resignations are also highest during these months. According to a study
of Tundra Vocational School,
which experiences entire seasons with little daylight, students' grade point averages increased when Day Glow light bulbs,
which mimic sunlight, were installed in classrooms. This study suggests that Sherwood can improve students' academic performance
and teachers' morale by using Day Glow light bulbs in winter."
The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of marketing
at Dura-Sock, Inc.
"A recent study of Dura-Sock wearers suggests that our company is
wasting the money it spends on its patented 'Endure' manufacturing process, which ensures that our socks are strong enough
to last for two years. Dura-Sock has always advertised its use of the 'Endure' process, but the new study shows that the average
Dura-Sock customer actually purchases new Dura-Socks every three months. Furthermore, Dura-Sock customers surveyed in our
largest market, northeastern United States
cities, say that they most value Dura-Sock's stylish appearance and availability in many colors. These findings suggest that
Dura-Sock can increase its profits by discontinuing its use of the 'Endure' manufacturing process."
The following proposal was raised at a meeting of the Franklin City
Airport, which is on a bay, is notorious for flight delays. The airport
management wants to build new runways to increase capacity but can only do so by filling in 900 acres of the bay. The Bay
Coalition organization objects that filling in the bay will disrupt tidal patterns and harm wildlife. But the airport says
that if it is permitted to build its new runways, it will fund the restoration of 1,000 acres of wetlands in areas of the
bay that have previously been damaged by industrialization. This plan should be adopted, for it is necessary to reduce the
flight delays, and the wetlands restoration part of the plan ensures that the bay's environment will actually be helped rather
The following was published by a consumer protection agency.
"Three years ago, So-Low launched a nationwide ad campaign, focusing
heavily on sunny regions and distributing free sunglasses there. But although So-Low sunglasses cost less than higher-priced
brands, they block a smaller proportion of the Sun's rays, including the type of rays known to damage the eyes even when the
person wearing the sunglasses feels no discomfort. A recent study suggests that So-Low sunglasses can actually increase the
risk of damage to people's eyes by creating a false sense of security. The study shows a sharp increase in the incidence of
vision problems in the sunny regions over the past three years. These findings suggest that anyone concerned about eye damage
from the Sun should avoid So-Low brand and instead either pay for higher-priced brands or wear no sunglasses at all."
A recently completed study shows that people dwelling in stairs-only
apartment buildings (that is, buildings without elevators) live an average of three years longer than do people who live in
buildings with both elevators and stairs. A second study shows that elderly residents of buildings with elevators make, on
average, twice as many visits to doctors each year as do elderly residents of buildings without elevators. These findings
suggest that even a very moderate amount of daily exercise, such as that required to use the stairs leading to and from one's
apartment, can increase people's health and longevity. The findings also suggest that new apartment buildings should be constructed
with as few elevators as possible.
The following appeared in a clothing industry trade journal in the
country of Sartoria.
"A popular fashion magazine recently conducted a survey of consumers'
opinions about clothing prices, using prepaid mailing envelopes. Eighty-nine percent of the approximately 20,000 respondents
reported that they were either 'dissatisfied' or 'very dissatisfied' with current clothing prices. The large number of responses
indicates that the Sartorian clothing industry is at risk. Given the survey results, clothing manufacturers must find a way
to reduce prices in order to keep their existing customers and maintain their businesses."
The following appeared in a memo from Grocery Town's regional manager.
"The new Grocery Town store in Elm City,
located near a new residential development, has a 'high-low' pricing policy where average prices are relatively high, but
deep discounts are offered on some items in weekly specials. This store has been showing increased profits every month as
the nearby residential development gets closer to full capacity. It follows that people prefer a pricing policy where they
can find bargains on specific items. Since there is a new residential development planned in Oak
City, we should change the pricing policy at all of our Oak City stores from our current 'everyday
low prices' policy to a 'high-low' policy. This will increase the profits at all of our stores in Oak City."
The following is a memo from the business manager of Valu-Mart stores.
"Over 70 percent of the respondents to a recent survey reported that
they are required to take more work home with them from the workplace than they were in the past. Since Valu-Mart has not
seen impressive sales in its office-supply departments in the past, we should take advantage of this work-at-home trend by
increasing at all Valu-Mart stores the stock of home office machines such as printers, small copy machines, paper shredders,
and fax machines. We will also increase stock of office supplies such as paper, pens, and staplers. With these changes, our
office-supply departments will become the most profitable component of our stores."
The following appeared in a newsletter from a national astronomy
"Various sources are predicting higher-than-average temperatures
across the country next winter, including in Sun City, the traditional location of our yearly
winter conference. Higher winter temperatures are sure to result in higher-than-usual tourism in Sun
City, a location already known for its attractive beaches and good weather. Hotels will have fewer rooms available,
transportation will be more difficult to reserve, and public places such as parks and restaurants will be more crowded. These
conditions are likely to significantly reduce attendance at the conference. We should therefore move our conference to a city
less popular with winter tourists."
The following is a letter to the editor of the Waymarsh Times.
"Traffic problems here in Waymarsh are obviously reaching record
levels. While just three months ago it would take me 15 minutes to get to work, it now takes closer to 25. Waymarsh should
follow the example of our neighboring city Gearsville. Last year, Gearsville implemented a policy that rewards people who
share rides to work with coupons for free gas. Pollution levels in Gearsville have dropped since the policy was implemented,
and several friends who live in Gearsville tell me that their trip to work is quicker than it used to be. With the terrible
traffic and high pollution in Waymarsh, we must implement a policy similar to Gearsville's."
The following appeared in a health newsletter.
"A ten-year nationwide study of the effectiveness of wearing a helmet
while bicycling indicates that ten years ago, approximately 35 percent of all bicyclists reported wearing helmets, whereas
today that number is nearly 80 percent. Another study, however, suggests that during the same ten-year period, the number
of accidents caused by bicycling has increased 200 percent. These results demonstrate that bicyclists feel safer because they
are wearing helmets and they take more risks as a result. Thus, to reduce the number of serious injuries from bicycle accidents,
the government should concentrate more on educating people about bicycle safety and less on encouraging or requiring bicyclists
to wear helmets."
The following is a memo from the president of Cyberell Computer Company.
"All of our customer-service employees recently attended a two-day
retreat during which they received retraining in effective customer service. Subsequently, Cyberell's employee-performance
study showed that the retreat benefited new employees — those who have worked with Cyberell for less than two years
— far more than it did experienced employees. According to the study, after the retreat new employees were able to handle
an average of ten percent more calls per hour, and the total number of customer complaints about new employees decreased,
but experienced employees showed little improvement in these areas. Therefore, Cyberell should send only new employees to
future retreats and should use the resulting savings to double the length of the retreats so that the retreats will be more
likely to yield optimum employee performance."
The following appeared in the Pine City Gazette.
"Fifteen years ago, Pine
City launched an electricity-conservation program that reimbursed residents
some of the cost for replacing energy-wasteful motors, home office equipment, and home appliances with energy-efficient ones.
For ten years, spending on this program increased annually, and annual total energy consumption declined. But spending on
the program began to decline five years ago, and since then Pine
City's total electricity consumption has increased sharply. If this increased
usage continues, the city will have to build a costly new power plant. Obviously the best way to avoid this expense is to
increase reimbursement to residents for replacing energy-wasteful equipment. This will reduce energy usage to the levels of
five years ago."
The following appeared in a health newsletter.
"Eating a heavy meal may increase the risk of heart attack. A recent
survey of 2,000 people who had had a heart attack revealed that 158 of them said they had eaten a heavy meal within 24 hours
before their heart attack, and 25 of them said they had eaten a heavy meal within 2 hours before their heart attack. Eating
and digesting food releases hormones into the bloodstream and temporarily increases heart rate and blood pressure slightly.
Both of these things put stress on the heart. Therefore, people who are at risk of having a heart attack can lower that risk
by not overeating."
The following is a memo from the business manager of National Daily
"To expand the home delivery service of our national newspaper, we
should concentrate on the state of Urba rather than on the state of Sylva. First, the population of Sylva is more widely dispersed,
which would require us to spend more money to deliver our papers in that area, resulting in less profit per customer. Second,
a long-term study of television viewing habits suggests that Sylvans prefer local to national news, since they spend twice
as much time viewing local news programs as they do viewing national programs. Finally, because events in Urba receive more
coverage in our newspaper than do events in Sylva, we can expect Urbans to be more interested in reading our newspaper."
The following is a recommendation from the president of Appleby College.
"Whereas Appleby College holds class reunions every five years, Edelston
College holds annual reunions for all classes, during which Edelston's
alumni are treated to banquets, lectures, and student performances, enhancing their loyalty to the college and their willingness
to donate money. Edelston College
receives most of its alumni donations during or shortly after these reunions. Therefore, the best way for Appleby to increase
its alumni donations is to offer similar reunion activities and to have each graduating class hold annual reunions."
The following appeared in a health magazine.
"It has long been believed that getting at least eight hours of sleep
a night is good for health. But a recent six-year study of adult sleeping habits found that people who reported sleeping eight
or more hours a night had a higher rate of certain health problems than did those who reported sleeping seven hours a night.
People who reported sleeping five hours a night also had an increased rate of the health problems, but this increase was slight
compared to that for people who reported sleeping eight or more hours a night. Clearly, people should try to get seven hours
of sleep, and they should worry more about getting too much sleep than too little."
The vice president for human resources at Climpson Industries sent
the following recommendation to the company's president.
"In an effort to improve our employees' productivity, we should implement
electronic monitoring of employees' Internet use from their workstations. Employees who use the Internet from their workstations
need to be identified and punished if we are to reduce the number of work hours spent on personal or recreational activities,
such as shopping or playing games. By installing software to detect employees' Internet use on company computers, we can prevent
employees from wasting time, foster a better work ethic at Climpson, and improve our overall profits."
The following appeared in an editorial in the Garden City Gazette.
"To address the parking problems in our downtown business district,
it has been proposed that the city increase parking capacity by building a four-story parking garage. However, this project
would cost more than it would to improve the downtown pedestrian plaza. Because the pedestrian plaza is an important attraction
that draws people to the downtown area, improvements to it will increase business for downtown merchants. The merchants' higher
profits will ultimately produce increased tax revenues for the city. Therefore, we should invest in the plaza improvements
first and then use the revenues thus generated to pay for the construction of the parking garage."
The following appeared in the Sherwood Times newspaper.
"A recent study reported that pet owners have longer, healthier lives
on average than do people who own no pets. Specifically, dog owners tend to have a lower incidence of heart disease. In light
of these findings, Sherwood Hospital
should form a partnership with Sherwood Animal Shelter to institute an 'adopt-a-dog' program. The program would encourage
dog ownership for patients recovering from heart disease, which will help reduce medical costs by reducing the number of these
patients needing ongoing treatment. In addition, the publicity about the program will encourage more people to adopt pets
from the shelter, which will reduce the risk of heart disease in the general population."
The following appeared in the annual report of a chain of stores
that sell supplies for do-it-yourself home improvements.
"Current reports indicate that sales of new homes nationwide declined
by 9 percent during the past year, while sales of existing homes increased by 16 percent. Thus we can expect that the percentage
of homeowners who will be making repairs or improvements to their homes will also increase. In addition, people who buy existing
homes will have more money left over after the purchase to spend on home improvements. Finally, people who buy existing homes
are more likely to make improvements themselves, as opposed to paying someone else. These factors combined indicate we can
expect an increasing demand for products in all our stores nationwide, thus increasing our profits in the coming year."
The following appeared in an environmental newsletter published in
"The marine sanctuary on Tria
Island was established to protect certain marine mammals. Its regulations
ban dumping and offshore oil drilling within 20 miles of Tria, but fishing is not banned. Currently many fish populations
in Tria's waters are declining, a situation blamed on pollution. In contrast, the marine sanctuary on Omni Island has regulations that ban dumping,
offshore oil drilling, and fishing within 10 miles of Omni and Omni reports no significant decline in its fish populations.
Clearly, the decline in fish populations in Tria's waters is the result of overfishing, not pollution. Therefore, the best
way to restore Tria's fish populations and to protect all of Tria's marine wildlife is to abandon our regulations and adopt
those of Omni."
The following appeared in an editorial in the local newspaper of
"Workers should be allowed to reduce their workload from 40 to 25
or even 20 hours per week because it is clear that people who work part-time instead of full-time have better health and improved
morale. One store in Workville, which began allowing its employees to work part-time last year, reports that fewer days of
sick leave were taken last year than in previous years. In contrast, the factory in Workville, which does not allow any of
its employees to work part-time, had a slight increase in the number of days of sick leave taken last year. In addition, a
recent survey reports that most of the store employees stated that they are satisfied with their jobs, while many of the factory
employees stated that they are dissatisfied with their jobs."
The following is a memo from the principal of Academia High School.
High School should abolish its after-school performing-arts programs
and replace them with computer-technology programs. When nearby Techno High School did so last year, total enrollment in all
of its after-school activities remained about the same. Moreover, on entering college, many Techno students chose a major
directly related to their after-school activities. On the other hand, last year only 10 percent of Academia's graduating seniors
chose performing arts as their major field of study in their first year of college, clearly indicating that most students
do not have a strong interest in the performing arts."
The following was taken from a guide for aspiring writers.
"New writers usually cannot convince large, prestigious publishers
that their work is marketable, so they must first publish with smaller, less well-known presses to establish a sales record.
But the editors of Mystery Writers Magazine have good news for aspiring writers: the number of mystery novels published in
the last two years has grown significantly, and more people read mysteries than any other type of novel. In addition, almost
half of the mystery novels published last year were written by first-time novel writers. Since there is apparently an expanding
market for mystery novels, all publishers will want to increase the number of mystery novels they publish. Therefore, new
writers should write mystery novels to increase their chances for first-time publication with a larger, prestigious company."
The following is a memorandum from the business manager of WLSS television
"Over the past year, our late-night news program has devoted increasingly
more time to covering national news and less time to covering weather and local news. During the same time period, most of
the complaints we received from viewers were concerned with the station's coverage of weather and local news. In addition,
several local businesses that used to run advertisements during our late-night news program have just cancelled their advertising
contracts with us. Therefore, in order to attract more viewers to our news programs and to avoid losing any further advertising
revenues, we should expand the coverage of weather and local news on all our news programs."
The following is part of a letter from the Brookfree School Board.
"As part of our new educational reform program, we identified ten
schools most in need of immediate improvement. An advisory committee is now recommending that we hire consultants to study
further the schools' problems and to propose a plan of action. Only two years ago, however, another group of consultants determined
that several schools in our district had problems because their principals were inexperienced. Thus, if we want to see immediate
improvement in our schools and save the district the money it would spend on hiring more consultants, we should replace all
the principals in the ten worst schools with ten of our most experienced principals in the district."
The following appeared in an editorial in the Mason City newspaper.
"At present, Mason City residents
seldom use the nearby Mason River
for any kind of recreational activity, even though surveys of the region's residents consistently rank water sports (swimming,
fishing, and boating) as a favorite form of recreation. Since there have been complaints about the quality of the water in
the river, residents must be avoiding the river because they think that it is not clean enough. But that situation is about
to change: the agency responsible for rivers in our region has announced plans to clean up Mason River. Therefore, recreational use of
the river is likely to increase, so the Mason City council will need to increase its budget
for improvements to the publicly owned lands along the Mason
The following report appeared in a memo from the vice president of
the Southside Transportation Authority.
"We should abandon our current five-year plan to purchase additional
buses to serve the campus of Southside University,
because students there are unlikely to use them. Consider the results of the recent campaign sponsored by the Environmental
Club at Southside University:
in a program on the campus radio station, the club asked students to call in and pledge that they would commute to school
by bus instead of by automobile at least one day per week. Only ten percent of the students called in and pledged. In view
of the campaign's lack of success, we can assume that the bus service we currently offer will continue to be sufficient to
serve the university."
The following appeared in the editorial section of an educational
"One study at Lee University found that first-semester grades of
teenage students who had always attended public, tax-supported schools were slightly lower than the grades of students who
had received some home schooling instruction by parents at home, although the grade differences disappeared in the second
semester. These results suggest that home schooling is the best way to educate teenage children. Therefore, instead of spending
more money on public education, the government should provide financial incentives so that home schooling is an option for
more parents. After all, children schooled at home receive more attention, since they are taught by the best possible teacher:
a parent who has a high stake in educating them well."
The following appeared in a report of the Committee on Faculty Promotions
and Salaries at Elm City
"During her 17 years as a professor of botany, Professor Thomas has
proved herself to be well worth her annual salary of $50,000. Her classes are among the largest at the university, demonstrating
her popularity among students. Moreover, the money she has brought to the university in research grants has exceeded her salary
in each of the last two years. Therefore, in consideration of Professor Thomas' demonstrated teaching and research abilities,
we recommend that she receive a $10,000 raise and a promotion to Department Chairperson; without such a raise and promotion,
we fear that Professor Thomas will leave Elm City University for another college."
The following appeared in a newsletter distributed at a recent political
"Over the past year, the Consolidated Copper Company (CCC) has purchased
over one million square miles of land in the tropical nation of West Fredonia. Mining copper
on this land will inevitably result in pollution and environmental disaster, since West Fredonia
is home to several endangered animal species. But such disaster can be prevented if consumers simply refuse to purchase products
that are made with CCC's copper until the company abandons its mining plans."
The article entitled "Eating Iron" in last month's issue of Eating
for Health reported that a recent study found a correlation between high levels of iron in the diet and an increased risk
of heart disease. Further, it is well established that there is a link between large amounts of red meat in the diet and heart
disease, and red meat is high in iron. On the basis of the study and the well-established link between red meat and heart
disease, we can conclude that the correlation between high iron levels and heart disease, then, is most probably a function
of the correlation between red meat and heart disease.
The following appeared as a letter to the editor of a national newspaper.
"Your recent article on corporate downsizing* in the United States is misleading. The article gives the mistaken
impression that many competent workers who lost jobs as a result of downsizing face serious economic hardship, often for years,
before finding other suitable employment. But this impression is contradicted by a recent report on the United States economy, which found that since 1992 far more
jobs have been created than have been eliminated. The report also demonstrates that many of those who lost their jobs have
found new employment. Two-thirds of the newly created jobs have been in industries that tend to pay above-average wages, and
the vast majority of these jobs are full-time."
*Downsizing is the process in which corporations deliberately reduce
the number of their employees.
According to a poll of 200 charitable organizations, donations of
money to nonprofit groups increased by nearly 25 percent last year, though not all charities gained equally. Religious groups
gained the most (30 percent), followed by environmental groups (23 percent), whereas educational institutions experienced
only a very small increase in donations (3 percent). This poll indicates that more people are willing and able to give money
to charities but that funding for education is not a priority for most people. These differences in donation rates must result
from the perception that educational institutions are less in need of donations than are other kinds of institutions.
A new study collected data that shows that people who snore are more
likely to gain weight than are people who do not snore. It is well known that many people who snore also stop breathing frequently
during the night for a few seconds, a condition called sleep apnea. The interruption of breathing wakes the person —
often so briefly that the waking goes unnoticed — and can leave the person too tired during the day to exercise. Anyone
who snores, therefore, should try to eat less than the average person and to exercise more.
The following appeared in the editorial section of a local newspaper.
"The librarians in our town's school system have reported that the
number of trips that our students make to their school library on a voluntary basis has decreased significantly in recent
years. For example, the average seventh-grade student visited the school library five times last year, but four of those visits
were part of required classroom activities. This shows that our students are reading less than in the past. To address this
problem, our town needs to improve the atmosphere of the libraries so that they will be comfortable places in which to work.
If students view the libraries as uncomfortable, then they are unlikely to want to spend much time there."
The following appeared in an editorial in a business magazine.
"Although the sales of Whirlwind video games have declined over the
past two years, a recent survey of video-game players suggests that this sales trend is about to be reversed. The survey asked
video-game players what features they thought were most important in a video game. According to the survey, players prefer
games that provide lifelike graphics, which require the most up-to-date computers. Whirlwind has just introduced several such
games with an extensive advertising campaign directed at people 10 to 25 years old, the age-group most likely to play video
games. It follows, then, that the sales of Whirlwind video games are likely to increase dramatically in the next few months."
The following appeared in the editorial section of Monroetown's local
"Mayor Brown was recently re-elected by a clear majority of 52 percent
of Monroetown's voters. Her re-election, however, does not show that most people in our town favored Mayor Brown's proposal
for tax reduction over that of her opponent, Mr. Greene, who proposed raising taxes to improve education. It has been shown
that voters nationwide tend to re-elect people already in office, regardless of candidates' proposals. In fact, a local survey
after the election showed most people in Monroetown disagreed with Mayor Brown's proposal. Clearly most people in Monroetown
favor improving education and therefore approve of Mr. Greene's proposal despite the fact that they did not vote for him."
The following is a memorandum from the director of personnel to the
president of Get-Away Airlines.
"Since our mechanics are responsible for inspecting and maintaining
our aircraft, Get-Away Airlines should pay to send them to the Quality-Care Seminar, a two-week seminar on proper maintenance
procedures. I recommend this seminar because it is likely to be a wise investment, given that the automobile racing industry
recently reported that the performance of its maintenance crews improved markedly after their crews had attended the seminar.
These maintenance crews perform many of the same functions as do our mechanics, including refueling and repairing engines.
The money we spend on sending our staff to the seminar will inevitably lead to improved maintenance and thus to greater customer
satisfaction along with greater profits for our airline."
The following is a letter to the editor of an environmental magazine.
"The decline in the numbers of amphibians worldwide clearly indicates
the global pollution of water and air. Two studies of amphibians in YosemiteNational
Park in California
confirm my conclusion. In 1915 there were seven species of amphibians in the park, and there were abundant numbers of each
species. However, in 1992 there were only four species of amphibians observed in the park, and the numbers of each species
were drastically reduced. The decline in Yosemite has been blamed on the introduction of
trout into the park's waters, which began in 1920 (trout are known to eat amphibian eggs). But the introduction of trout cannot
be the real reason for the Yosemite decline because it does not explain the worldwide decline."
The following is a letter to the editor of the Atticus
"Former Mayor Durant owes an apology to the city of Atticus. Both the damage to the River
Bridge, which connects Atticus to Hartley, and the traffic problems we
have long experienced on the bridge were actually caused 20 years ago by Durant. After all, he is the one who approved the
construction of the bridge. If he had approved a wider and better-designed bridge, on which approximately the same amount
of public money would have been spent, none of the damage or problems would have occurred. Instead, the River Bridge has deteriorated far more rapidly
over the past 20 years than has the much longer DerbyBridge up the river. Even though the winters have been severe in the
past several years, this is no excuse for the negligence and wastefulness of Durant."
The following is a letter to the head of the tourism bureau on the
island of Tria.
"Erosion of beach sand along the shores of Tria Island is a serious threat to our island
and our tourist industry. In order to stop the erosion, we should charge people for using the beaches. Although this solution
may annoy a few tourists in the short term, it will reduce the number of people using the beaches and will raise money for
replenishing the sand. Replenishing the sand, as was done to protect buildings on the nearby island of Batia, will help protect buildings
along our shores, thereby reducing these buildings' risk of additional damage from severe storms. And since the areas along
the shore will be more attractive as a result, the beaches will be preserved and the area's tourist industry will improve
over the long term."
The following is from an editorial in the Midvale Observer, a local
"Ever since the 1950's when television sets began to appear in the
average home, the rate of crimes committed by teenagers in the country of Alta has steadily increased. This increase in teenage
crime parallels the increase in violence shown on television. According to several national studies, even very young children
who watch a great number of television shows featuring violent scenes display more violent behavior within their home environment
than do children who do not watch violent shows. Furthermore, in a survey conducted by the Observer, over 90 percent of the
respondents were parents who indicated that prime-time television — programs that are shown between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m.
— should show less violence. Therefore, in order to lower the rate of teenage crime in Alta, television viewers should
demand that television programmers reduce the amount of violence shown during prime time."
The following appeared in the editorial section of a health and fitness
"In a study of the effects of exercise on longevity, medical researchers
tracked 500 middle-aged men over a 20-year period. The subjects represented a variety of occupations in several different
parts of the country and responded to an annual survey in which they were asked: How often and how strenuously do you exercise?
Of those who responded, the men who reported that they engaged in vigorous outdoor exercise nearly every day lived longer
than the men who reported that they exercised mildly only once or twice a week. Given the clear link that this study establishes
between longevity and exercise, doctors should not recommend moderate exercise to their patients but should instead encourage
vigorous outdoor exercise on a daily basis."
The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a local newspaper.
"Too much emphasis is placed on the development of reading skills
in elementary school. Many students who are discouraged by the lonely activity of reading turn away from schoolwork merely
because they are poor readers. But books recorded on audiocassette tape provide an important alternative for students at this
crucial stage in their education, one the school board should not reject merely because of the expense involved. After all,
many studies attest to the value of allowing students to hear books read aloud; there is even evidence that students whose
parents read to them are even more likely to become able readers. Thus, hearing books on tape can only make students more
eager to read and to learn. Therefore, the school board should encourage schools to buy books on tape and to use them in elementary
The following is taken from an advertisement placed in a weekly business
magazine by the DickensAcademy.
"We distributed a survey to senior management at International Mega-Publishing,
Inc. The result of the survey clearly indicates that many employees were well prepared in business knowledge and computer
skills, but lacked interpersonal skills to interact gracefully with customers. International Mega-Publishing decided to improve
customer satisfaction by sending their newly hired employees to our one-day seminars. Since taking advantage of our program,
International Mega-Publishing has seen a sharp increase in sales, an indication that the number of their disgruntled customers
has declined significantly. Your company should hire Dickens and let us turn every employee into an ambassador for your company."
The following is a letter to the editor of a local newspaper.
"As a local merchant, I wish to support the development of a ski
resort in the state park north of our township. Along with many other merchants who favor the proposal by Ski the Slopes,
Incorporated, I would, of course, experience a growth in my business. But I also know how much more prosperous, not to mention
lively and interesting, our community would be if tourism increased. Since the main opposition comes from a few environmentalists*
who do not even live in this community, I see no reason to give in to their views. The First National Bank has finally researched
the project and agreed to fund it. As a result, I see no reason to delay development of the resort."
Environmentalists are people who advocate the preservation of the
The Trash-Site Safety Council has recently conducted a statewide
study of possible harmful effects of garbage sites on the health of people living near the sites. A total of five sites and
300 people were examined. The study revealed, on average, only a small statistical correlation between the proximity of homes
to garbage sites and the incidence of unexplained rashes among people living in these homes. Furthermore, although it is true
that people living near the largest trash sites had a slightly higher incidence of the rashes, there was otherwise no correlation
between the size of the garbage sites and people's health. Therefore, the council is pleased to announce that the current
system of garbage sites does not pose a significant health hazard. We see no need to restrict the size of such sites in our
state or to place any restrictions on the number of homes built near the sites.
The nation of Claria covers a vast physical area. But despite wide
geographic differences, many citizens are experiencing rising costs of electricity. A recent study of household electric costs
in Claria found that families who cooled their houses with fans alone spent more on electricity than did families using air
conditioners alone for cooling. However, those households that reported using both fans and air conditioners spent less on
electricity than those households that used either fans or air conditioners alone. Thus, the citizens of Claria should follow
the study's recommendation and use both air conditioners and fans in order to save money on electricity.
As people grow older, an enzyme known as PEP increasingly breaks
down the neuropeptide chemicals involved in learning and memory. But now, researchers have found compounds that prevent PEP
from breaking neuropeptides apart. In tests, these compounds almost completely restored lost memory in rats. The use of these
compounds should be extended to students who have poor memory and difficulty in concentrating — and therefore serious
problems in school performance. Science finally has a solution for problems neither parents nor teachers could solve.
In a study of reading habits of Leeville citizens conducted by the
University of Leeville,
most respondents said they preferred literary classics as reading material. However, a follow-up study conducted by the same
researchers found that the type of book most frequently checked out of each of the public libraries in Leeville was the mystery
novel. Therefore, it can be concluded that the respondents in the first study had misrepresented their reading habits.
A recent study shows that people living on the continent of North
America suffer 9 times more chronic fatigue and 31 times more chronic depression than do people living on the continent of
Asia. Interestingly, Asians, on average, eat 20 grams of soy per day, whereas North Americans
eat virtually none. It turns out that soy contains phytochemicals called isoflavones, which have been found to possess disease-preventing
properties. Thus, North Americans should consider eating soy on a regular basis as a way of preventing fatigue and depression.
The following is taken from the editorial section of the local newspaper
"In order to save a considerable amount of money, Rockingham's century-old
town hall should be torn down and replaced by the larger and more energy-efficient building that some citizens have proposed.
The old town hall is too small to comfortably accommodate the number of people who are employed by the town. In addition,
it is very costly to heat the old hall in winter and cool it in summer. The new, larger building would be more energy efficient,
costing less per square foot to heat and cool than the old hall. Furthermore, it would be possible to rent out some of the
space in the new building, thereby generating income for the town of Rockingham."
Claitown University needs both affordable housing for
its students and a way to fund the building of such housing. The best solution to this problem is to commission a famous architect
known for experimental and futuristic buildings. It is common knowledge that tourists are willing to pay money to tour some
of the architect's buildings, so it can be expected that tourists will want to visit this new building. The income from the
fees charged to tourists will soon cover the building costs. Furthermore, such a building will attract new students as well
as donations from alumni. And even though such a building will be much larger than our current need for student housing, part
of the building can be used as office space.
The following appeared in a business magazine.
"As a result of numerous consumer complaints of dizziness and nausea,
Promofoods requested that eight million cans of tuna be returned for testing last year. Promofoods concluded that the cans
did not, after all, contain chemicals that posed a health risk. This conclusion is based on the fact that the chemists from
Promofoods tested samples of the recalled cans and found that, of the eight chemicals most commonly blamed for causing symptoms
of dizziness and nausea, five were not found in any of the tested cans. The chemists did find that the three remaining suspected
chemicals are naturally found in all other kinds of canned foods."
The following appeared in a local newspaper.
"People should not be misled by the advertising competition between
Coldex and Cold-Away, both popular over-the-counter cold medications that anyone can purchase without a doctor's prescription.
Each brand is accusing the other of causing some well-known, unwanted side effect: Coldex is known to contribute to existing
high blood pressure and Cold-Away is known to cause drowsiness. But the choice should be clear for most health-conscious people:
Cold-Away has been on the market for much longer and is used by more hospitals than is Coldex. Clearly, Cold-Away is more
A folk remedy* for insomnia, the scent in lavender flowers, has now
been proved effective. In a recent study, 30 volunteers with chronic insomnia slept each night for three weeks on lavender-scented
pillows in a controlled room where their sleep was monitored. During the first week, volunteers continued to take their usual
sleeping medication. They slept soundly but wakened feeling tired. During the second week, the volunteers discontinued their
medication. As a result, they slept less soundly than the previous week and felt even more tired. During the third week, the
volunteers slept longer and more soundly than in the previous two weeks. This shows that over a short period of time lavender
*A folk remedy is usually a plant-based form of treatment common
to traditional forms of medicine, ones that developed before the advent of modern medical services and technology.
Typically, as people age, their bone mass decreases, making them
more vulnerable to bone fractures. A recent study concludes that the most effective way to reduce the risk of fractures in
later life is to take twice the recommended dose of vitamin D and calcium daily. The three-year study followed a group of
French women in their eighties who were nursing-home residents. The women were given daily supplements of twice the recommended
dose of vitamin D and calcium. In addition, the women participated in a light weightlifting program. After three years, these
women showed a much lower rate of hip fractures than is average for their age.
The following appeared in a letter from a department chairperson
to the president of Pierce University.
"Some studies conducted by Bronston
College, which is also located in a small town, reveal that both male
and female professors are happier living in small towns when their spouses are also employed in the same geographic area.
Therefore, in the interest of attracting the most gifted teachers and researchers to our faculty and improving the morale
of our entire staff, we at Pierce University
should offer employment to the spouse of each new faculty member we hire. Although we cannot expect all offers to be accepted
or to be viewed as an ideal job offer, the money invested in this effort will clearly be well spent because, if their spouses
have a chance of employment, new professors will be more likely to accept our offers."
For the past five years, consumers in California
have been willing to pay twice as much for oysters from the northeastern Atlantic
Coast as for Gulf Coast oysters. This trend began shortly after harmful bacteria were found in a few raw
oysters. But scientists have now devised a process for killing the bacteria. Once consumers are made aware of the increased
safety of Gulf Coast oysters, they are likely
to be willing to pay as much for Gulf Coast
as for northeastern Atlantic Coast oysters,
and greater profits for Gulf Coast
oyster producers will follow.
The following appeared in a memo from the marketing director of Bargain
"One year ago we introduced our first product, 'Bargain Brand' breakfast
cereal. Our very low prices quickly drew many customers away from the top-selling cereal companies. Although the companies
producing the top brands have since tried to compete with us by lowering their prices, and although several plan to introduce
their own budget brands, not once have we needed to raise our prices to continue making a profit. Given our success selling
cereal, Bargain Brand should now expand its business and begin marketing other low-priced food products as quickly as possible."
The Mozart School of Music should obviously be the first choice of
any music student aware of its reputation. First of all, the Mozart
School stresses intensive practice and training, so that students typically
begin their training at a very young age. Second, the school has ample facilities and up-to-date professional equipment, and
its faculty includes some of the most distinguished music teachers in the world. Finally, many Mozart graduates have gone
on to be the best known and most highly paid musicians in the nation.
The following is a memorandum issued by the publisher of a newsmagazine,
Newsbeat, in the country of Dinn.
"Our poorest-selling magazine issues over the past three years were
those that featured international news stories on their front covers. Over the same period, competing news-magazines have
significantly decreased the number of cover stories that they devote to international news. Moreover, the cost of maintaining
our foreign bureaus to report on international news is increasing. Therefore, we should decrease our emphasis on international
news and refrain from displaying such stories on our magazine covers."
The following recommendation was made by the president and administrative
staff of Grove College,
a private institution, to the college's governing committee.
"We recommend that Grove
College preserve its century-old tradition of all-female education rather
than admit men into its programs. It is true that a majority of faculty members voted in favor of coeducation, arguing that
it would encourage more students to apply to Grove. But eighty percent of the students responding to a survey conducted by
the student government wanted the school to remain all female, and over half of the alumni who answered a separate survey
also opposed coeducation. Keeping the college all-female, therefore, will improve morale among students and convince alumni
to keep supporting the college financially."
The following appeared in a letter to the school board in the town
"All students should be required to take the driver's education course
at Centerville High School.
In the past two years several accidents in and around Centerville
have involved teenage drivers. Since a number of parents in Centerville
have complained that they are too busy to teach their teenagers to drive, some other instruction is necessary to ensure that
these teenagers are safe drivers. Although there are two driving schools in Centerville,
parents on a tight budget cannot afford to pay for driving instruction. Therefore an effective and mandatory program sponsored
by the high school is the only solution to this serious problem."
The following is a memorandum from the sales director to the president
of the Healthy-and-Good food company.
"A recent study indicates that Venadial, a new margarine currently
produced only in the country of Alta, actually reduces cholesterol levels. Derived from the resin of pine trees, Venadial
works by activating a metabolic response that is not yet well understood. However, cholesterol levels fell ten to fifteen
percent among participants in the study who consumed Venadial daily, and the risk of heart attack by one-third. In addition,
the new margarine is so popular that stores in Alta are unable to keep it on their shelves. Therefore, if our company obtains
the exclusive right to sell Venadial internationally, our profits are sure to increase substantially within a very short time."
The following is a letter that recently appeared in the Oak City
Gazette, a local newspaper.
"Membership in Oak City's Civic Club — a club whose primary
objective is to discuss local issues — should continue to be restricted to people who live in Oak City. People who work
in Oak City
but who live elsewhere cannot truly understand the business and politics of the city. It is important to restrict membership
to city residents because only residents pay city taxes and therefore only residents understand how the money could best be
used to improve the city. At any rate, restricting membership in this way is unlikely to disappoint many of the nonresidents
employed in Oak City, since neighboring
Elm City's Civic Club has always had an
open membership policy, and only twenty-five nonresidents have joined Elm
City's Club in the last ten years."
The following appeared in the annual report from the president of
the National Brush Company.
"In order to save money, we at the National Brush Company have decided
to pay our employees for each brush they produce instead of for the time they spend producing brushes. We believe that this
policy will lead to the production of more and better brushes, will allow us to reduce our staff size, and will enable the
company factories to operate for fewer hours — resulting in savings on electricity and security costs. These changes
will ensure that the best workers keep their jobs and that the company will earn a profit in the coming year."
The following is a memorandum written by the director of personnel
to the president of the Cedar Corporation.
"It would be a mistake to rehire the Good-Taste Company to supply
the food in our employee cafeteria next year. It is the second most expensive caterer in the city. In addition, its prices
have risen in each of the last three years, and it refuses to provide meals for people on special diets. Just last month three
employees complained to me that they no longer eat in the cafeteria because they find the experience 'unbearable.' Our company
should instead hire Discount Foods. Discount is a family-owned local company and it offers a varied menu of fish and poultry.
I recently tasted a sample lunch at one of the many companies that Discount serves and it was delicious — an indication
that hiring Discount will lead to improved employee satisfaction."
The following is a recommendation from the personnel director to
the president of Acme Publishing Company.
"Many other companies have recently stated that having their employees
take the Easy Read Speed-Reading Course has greatly improved productivity. One graduate of the course was able to read a five-hundred-page
report in only two hours; another graduate rose from an assistant manager to vice president of the company in under a year.
Obviously, the faster you can read, the more information you can absorb in a single workday. Moreover, Easy Read costs only
$500 per employee — a small price to pay when you consider the benefits to Acme. Included in this fee is a three-week
seminar in Spruce City
and a lifelong subscription to the Easy Read newsletter. Clearly, Acme would benefit greatly by requiring all of our employees
to take the Easy Read course."
From a letter to the editor of a city newspaper.
"One recent research study has indicated that many adolescents need
more sleep than they are getting, and another study has shown that many high school students in our city are actually dissatisfied
with their own academic performance. As a way of combating these problems, the high schools in our city should begin classes
at 8:30 A.M. instead of 7:30 A.M., and end the school day an hour later. This arrangement will give students an extra hour
of sleep in the morning, thereby making them more alert and more productive. Consequently, the students will perform better
on tests and other assignments, and their academic skills will improve significantly."
Butter has now been replaced by margarine in Happy Pancake House
restaurants throughout the southwestern United States.
Only about 2 percent of customers have complained, indicating that 98 people out of 100 are happy with the change. Furthermore,
many servers have reported that a number of customers who still ask for butter do not complain when they are given margarine
instead. Clearly, either these customers cannot distinguish margarine from butter, or they use the term 'butter' to refer
to either butter or margarine. Thus, to avoid the expense of purchasing butter, the Happy Pancake House should extend this
cost-saving change to its restaurants in the southeast and northeast as well.
Many employees of major United States corporations are fearful that they will lose their jobs in the near
future, but this fear is largely unfounded. According to a recent study, a majority of companies expected to make new hires
in the coming year, while fewer companies expected to lay off employees. In addition, although it is very disturbing to be
laid off, the proliferation of programs and of workshops designed to improve job-finding skills has made being laid off far
less painful than it once was.
In the Bayhead Public Library, books that are rarely borrowed continue
to take up shelf space year after year, while people who want to read a recent novel frequently find that the library's only
copy is checked out. Clearly, the library's plan to replace books that are borrowed no more than once a year with sufficient
copies of more recent books will solve this problem. The protest we have heard since this plan was made public has come from
a small, and thus unrepresentative, group of some thirty people and so should therefore be ignored.
The following appeared in a letter from the owner of the Sunnyside Towers apartment
building to its manager.
"One month ago, all the showerheads on the first five floors of SunnysideT
owers were modified to restrict the water flow to approximately 1/3 of its original force. Although actual readings of water
usage before and after the adjustment are not yet available, the change will obviously result in a considerable savings for
Sunnyside Corporation, since the corporation must pay for water each month. Except for a few complaints about low water pressure,
no problems with showers have been reported since the adjustment. Clearly, restricting water flow throughout all the 20 floors
of Sunnyside Towers
will increase our profits further."
The following is a recommendation from the director of personnel
to the president of Professional Printing Company.
"In a recent telephone survey of automobile factory workers, older
employees were less likely to report that having a supervisor present increases their productivity. Among workers aged 18
to 29, 27 percent said that they are more productive in the presence of their immediate supervisor, compared to 12 percent
for those aged 30 or over, and only 8 percent for those aged 50 or over. Clearly, if our printing company hires mainly older
employees, we will increase productivity and save money because of the reduced need for supervisors. "
The following appeared as part of an article in a health magazine.
"A new discovery warrants a drastic change in the diets of people
living in the United States. Two scientists
have recently suggested that omega -3 fatty acids (found in some fish and fish oils) play a key role in mental health. Our
ancestors, who ate less saturated fat and more polyunsaturated fat, including omega -3 fatty acids, were much less likely
to suffer from depression than we are today. Moreover, modern societies — such as those in Japan
and Taiwan — that consume large quantities of fish report depression
rates lower than that in the United States.
Given this link between omega -3 fatty acids and depression, it is important for all people in the United States to increase their consumption of fish in order to prevent depression."
A new report suggests that men and women experience pain very differently
from one another, and that doctors should consider these differences when prescribing pain medications. When researchers administered
the same dosage of kappa opioids — a painkiller — to 28 men and 20 women who were having their wisdom teeth extracted,
the women reported feeling much less pain than the men, and the easing of pain lasted considerably longer in women. This research
suggests that kappa opioids should be prescribed for women whenever pain medication is required, whereas men should be given
other kinds of pain medication. In addition, researchers should reevaluate the effects of all medications on men versus women.
The following is a recommendation from the dean at Foley College, a small liberal arts college,
to the president of the college.
"Since college-bound students are increasingly concerned about job
prospects after graduation, Foley College
should attempt to increase enrollment by promising to find its students jobs after they graduate. Many administrators feel
that this strategy is a way for Foley to compete against larger and more prestigious schools and to encourage students to
begin preparing for careers as soon as they enter college. Furthermore, a student who must choose a career path within his
or her first year of college and who is guaranteed a job after graduation is more likely to successfully complete the coursework
that will prepare him or her for the future."
The following is a letter to the editor of the Glenville Gazette,
a local newspaper.
"Over the past few years, the number of people who have purchased
advance tickets for the Glenville Summer Concert series has declined, indicating lack of community support. Although the weather
has been unpredictable in the past few years, this cannot be the reason for the decline in advance ticket purchases, because
many people attended the concerts even in bad weather. Clearly, then, the reason for the decline is the choice of music, so
the organizers of the concert should feature more modern music in the future and should be sure to include music composed
by Richerts, whose recordings Glenville residents purchase more often than any other contemporary recordings. This strategy
will undoubtedly increase advance ticket purchases and will increase attendance at the concerts."
The following is a letter from a professor at Xanadu College to the college's president.
"The development of an extensive computer-based long-distance learning
program will enhance the reputation of Xanadu College. This program would allow more students to enroll in our courses, thereby increasing
our income from student tuition. Traditional courses could easily be adapted for distance learners, as was shown by the adaptation
of two traditional courses for our distance learning trial project last year. Also, by using computer programs and taped lectures,
faculty will have fewer classroom obligations and more time to engage in extensive research, thereby enhancing the reputation
The following is a letter to the editor of the Roseville Gazette.
"Despite opposition from some residents of West Roseville, the arguments
in favor of merging the townships of Roseville and West Roseville
are overwhelming. First, residents in both townships are confused about which authority to contact when they need a service;
for example, the police department in Roseville receives many calls from residents of West Roseville. This sort of confusion would be eliminated with the merger. Second, the savings in administrative
costs would be enormous, since services would no longer be duplicated: we would have only one fire chief, one tax department,
one mayor, and so on. And no jobs in city government would be lost — employees could simply be reassigned. Most importantly,
the merger will undoubtedly attract business investments as it did when the townships of Hamden
and North Hamden merged ten years ago."
The Department of Education in the state of Attra recommends that
high school students be assigned homework every day. Yet a recent statewide survey of high school math and science teachers
calls the usefulness of daily homework into question. In the district of Sanlee, 86 percent of the teachers reported assigning
homework three to five times a week, whereas in the district of Marlee, less than 25 percent of the teachers reported assigning
homework three to five times a week. Yet the students in Marlee earn better grades overall and are less likely to be required
to repeat a year of school than are the students in Sanlee. Therefore, all teachers in our high schools should assign homework
no more than twice a week, if at all.
A recent study suggests that people who are left-handed are more
likely to succeed in business than are right-handed people. Researchers studied photographs of 1,000 prominent business executives
and found that 21 percent of these executives wrote with their left hand. So the percentage of prominent business executives
who are left-handed (21 percent) is almost twice the percentage of people in the general population who are left-handed (11
percent). Thus, people who are left-handed would be well advised to pursue a career in business, whereas people who are right-handed
would be well advised to imitate the business practices exhibited by left-handers.
The following is a letter from an editor at Liber Publishing Company
to the company's president.
"In recent years, Liber has unfortunately moved away from its original
mission: to publish the works of regional small-town authors instead of those of big-city authors. Just last year, 90 percent
of the novels we published were written by authors who maintain a residence in a big city. Although this change must have
been intended to increase profits, it has obviously backfired, because Liber is now in serious financial trouble. The only
way to address this problem is to return to our original mission. If we return to publishing only the works of regional small-town
authors, our financial troubles will soon be resolved."
Sadly, widespread negative images of businesspeople have been created
in large part by television. Consider the fact that, although they make up a mere 10 percent of the characters in dramatic
roles on television, businesspeople are responsible for about one-fifth of all the crime on television shows. In fact, in
a recent survey of television producers, only 35 percent of the television roles for businesspeople were viewed as positive
The following appeared as part of a recommendation made by a faculty
member to the president of a large university.
"Never once in our 150-year history as a university have we clarified
our objectives. How, then, can we hope to adapt as an institution to the new challenges facing higher education. As a first
step in this evolutionary process, therefore, we should send out questionnaires asking faculty members why they teach, asking
students what they want from this university, and asking former students what they gained from their own education here. When
the replies come in, we can tabulate them and formulate an official statement of our educational mission. This will surely
result in improved programs at our university."
There is a general idea that a translation always fails to preserve
some of the qualities that distinguish the original work — i.e., that 'something always gets lost in translation.' Writers,
critics, and the general reading public unthinkingly accept this clichè. But this belief is unwarranted: translators are sometimes
distinguished authors themselves, and some authors may even translate their own works. As the translator pointed out in the
preface to an English version of Dante's works, the violin and the piano make different sounds, but they can play what is
recognizably the same piece of music.
There is a general idea that waiters and waitresses are more likely
to receive larger gratuities from large groups of people. A recent research study suggests this is not true. The researchers
examined the relationship between the size of tips in restaurants and the number of meals charged on the bill. They found
that, while most tips were around 15 percent, the minimum percentage considered appropriate, people dining alone tipped consistently
more (19 percent) and those dining in groups of four or more tipped considerably less (13 percent) than this 15 percent standard.
These results strongly suggest that people dining in a group are less likely to feel personally responsible for leaving an
adequate or generous tip.
Statistics collected from dentists indicate that three times more
men than women faint while visiting the dentist. This evidence suggests that men are more likely to be distressed about having
dental work done than women are. Thus, dentists who advertise to attract patients should target the male consumer and emphasize
both the effectiveness of their anesthetic techniques and the sensitivity of their staff to nervous or suffering patients.
The citizens of Forsythe have adopted healthier lifestyles. Their
responses to a recent survey show that in their eating habits they conform more closely to government nutritional recommendations
than they did ten years ago. Furthermore, there has been a fourfold increase in sales of food products containing kiran, a
substance that a scientific study has shown reduces cholesterol. This trend is also evident in reduced sales of sulia, a food
that few of the healthiest citizens regularly eat.
Humans arrived in the Kaliko
Islands about 7,000 years ago, and within 3,000 years most of the large mammal species
that had lived in the forests of the Kaliko Islands
had become extinct. Yet humans cannot have been a factor in the species' extinctions, because there is no evidence that the
humans had any significant contact with the mammals. Further, archaeologists have discovered numerous sites where the bones
of fish had been discarded, but they found no such areas containing the bones of large mammals, so the humans cannot have
hunted the mammals. Therefore, some climate change or other environmental factor must have caused the species' extinctions.
The following appeared in a newspaper feature story.
"At the small, nonprofit hospital in the town of Saluda,
the average length of a patient's stay is two days; at the large, for-profit hospital in the nearby city of Megaville, the average patient stay is six days. Also, the cure rate among patients in the
Saluda hospital is about twice that of the Megaville hospital. The Saluda
hospital has more employees per patient than the hospital in Megaville, and there are few complaints about service at the
local hospital. Such data indicate that treatment in smaller, nonprofit hospitals is more economical and of better quality
than treatment in larger, for-profit hospitals."
The following appeared as a letter to the editor of a farming publication.
"With continuing publicity about the need for healthful diets, and
with new research about the harmful effects of eating too much sugar, nationwide demand for sugar will no doubt decline. Therefore,
farmers in our state should use the land on which they currently grow sugar cane to grow peanuts, a food that is rich in protein
and low in sugar. Farmers in the neighboring country of Palin greatly increased their production of peanuts last year, and
their total revenues from that crop were quite high."
The following appeared in a recommendation from the president of
Amburg's Chamber of Commerce.
"Last October the city of Belleville
installed high intensity lighting in its central business district, and vandalism there declined almost immediately. The city
of Amburg has recently begun police patrols on bicycles in
its business district but the rate of vandalism there remains constant. Since high intensity lighting is apparently the most
effective way to combat crime, we should install such lighting throughout Amburg. By reducing crime in this way, we can revitalize
the declining neighborhoods in our city."
The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Parkville
"Throughout the country last year, as more and more children below
the age of nine participated in youth-league softball and soccer, over 80,000 of these young players suffered injuries. When
interviewed for a recent study, youth-league softball players in several major cities also reported psychological pressure
from coaches and parents to win games. Furthermore, education experts say that long practice sessions for these sports take
away time that could be used for academic activities. Since the disadvantages apparently outweigh any advantages, we in Parkville should discontinue organized athletic competition for children under nine."
It is known that in recent years, industrial pollution has caused
the Earth's ozone layer to thin, allowing an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth's surface.
At the same time, scientists have discovered, the population of a species of salamander that lays its eggs in mountain lakes
has declined. Since ultraviolet radiation is known to be damaging to delicate tissues and since salamander eggs have no protective
shells, it must be the case that the increase in ultraviolet radiation has damaged many salamander eggs and prevented them
from hatching. This process will no doubt cause population declines in other species, just as it has in the salamander species.
The following appeared in a memorandum from the planning department
of an electric power company.
"Several recent surveys indicate that homeowners are increasingly
eager to conserve energy and manufacturers are now marketing many home appliances, such as refrigerators and air conditioners,
that are almost twice as energy-efficient as those sold a decade ago. Also, new technologies for better home insulation and
passive solar heating are readily available to reduce the energy needed for home heating. Therefore, we anticipate that the
total demand for electricity in our area will not increase, and may decline slightly. Since our three electric generating
plants in operation for the past 20 years have always met our needs, construction of new generating plants should not be necessary."
The following recommendation was made by the Human Resources Manager
to the board of directors of the Fancy Toy Company.
"In the last three quarters of this year, under the leadership of
our president, Pat Salvo, our profits have fallen considerably. Thus, we should ask for her resignation in return for a generous
severance package. In Pat's place, we should appoint Rosa Winnings. Rosa is currently president
of Starlight Jewelry, a company whose profits have increased dramatically over the past several years. Although we will have
to pay Rosa twice the salary that Pat has been receiving, it will be well worth it because
we can soon expect our profits to increase considerably."
The following is a letter to the editor of a news magazine.
"Clearly, the successful use of robots on missions to explore outer
space in the past 20 years demonstrates that robots could be increasingly used to perform factory work more effectively, efficiently,
and profitably than human factory workers. The use of robots in factories would offer several advantages. First, robots never
get sick, so absenteeism would be reduced. Second, robots do not make mistakes, so factories would increase their output.
Finally, the use of robots would also improve the morale of factory workers, since factory work can be so boring that many
workers would be glad to shift to more interesting kinds of tasks."
The following appeared in a memorandum to faculty from the academic
vice president of Waymarsh University.
"So that we can better accomplish Waymarsh
University's academic goals, we should adopt the job-opportunity (job-op) program
offered at Plateau Technical
College and strongly encourage all students at Waymarsh to participate
in it. The success of the job-op program at Plateau is evident: Over the past two years, more than 75% of the freshmen at
Plateau have enrolled in the optional job-op program. Moreover, at Plateau, the grades of job-op students are consistently
higher than those of other students, 90% of the job-op students receive job offers within a month after their graduation,
and most former job-op students report much success in their careers."